A motherboard is a printed circuit board, or PCB, that serves as the skeleton of a personal computer. It houses the processor, also known as the central processing unit, the graphics processing unit, or GPU, the memory module, or RAM, and the storage. Motherboard Ensures communication between all of these components and incorporates several critical subsystems such as I/O points, memory controllers, and interface connectors, among others. In the past, motherboards were comprised of printed circuit boards enclosed in a card cage, and the casing was connected to the components via a back panel comprised of a series of interconnected physical sockets. Motherboards underwent a dramatic evolution following the advent of the microprocessor. Despite the fact that the CPU, memory, and peripherals were all housed on separate printed circuit boards at the time. In the late 1980s and early 1990s, due to the adoption of single integrated circuits with low-speed peripherals, motherboards became a cost-effective alternative for a large number of peripherals. Serial and parallel ports were used to connect audio, video, storage, and networking capabilities to motherboards. Today, the majority of modern products, like smartphones, tablets, laptops, and desktop PCs, are built around these small motherboards.